Cyberbullying: The New Phenomenon
Nikki Lacherza and Dr. Richard P. Conti
The purpose of this study was to investigate computer and cell phone usages among college females, as well as their involvement in traditional and cyberbullying. It was hypothesized that college females with higher Internet and cell phone usages, and involvement with other forms of bullying behaviors will be significantly more likely to report being cyberbullied. Undergraduate females were asked to complete a Cyberbullying Questionnaire, which was used to measure what methods were used in bullying. Participants were also be asked to complete an Internet Experiences Questionnaire for the purpose of measuring the frequency in which cyberbullying is occurring. This provides valuable information on the new and recent phenomenon of cyberbullying among female college students.

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Evidence of Direct Reciprocity Norms in US Preschoolers
Chloe G Bland
Reciprocity norms are an integral part of social support and such norms require sophisticated social cognition. Therefore, the understanding and application of early reciprocity norms provides useful insights into aspects of children’s developing social cognition. The present study investigates the degree to which reciprocity norms operate in US preschoolers. To do this, we look at the distinction between need based mutual responsiveness and exchange based direct reciprocity norms in children. The dimensions explored in this study, timing of return and the need versus the non-need based nature of return, have not been explored in the developmental literature. Using a focal observation video technique, we measured the naturally occurring exchange of benefits between 18 four year olds at the Columbia University Medical Center Nursery School. We found support for some emerging dimensions of direct reciprocity norms.

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Sociocultural and Historical Factors Impacting Assessment and Treatment of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues in Liberia
Alexandra M. Knight
Liberia emerged from fourteen years of civil war in 2003, but it is still plagued by major issues with widespread mental illness, substance abuse, and crime. Post-traumatic stress disorder is the most prevalent form of mental illness in the country and substance abuse remains the most significant community-based problem. This paper is a literature review that explores the potential causes and consequences of these problems; issues with assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental illness and substance abuse; cultural perceptions of mental illness and substance abuse; and the impact that these problems have on Liberian society as a whole. Examples of similar issues in the United States are used throughout the paper for the purpose of making comparisons. It is clear that the brutal and lengthy war is the most significant contributor to the above issues in Liberia and that the current state of the country’s infrastructure makes it difficult to combat these problems.

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The Effect of Using “Um” and “Uh” on the Perceived Intelligence of a Speaker
Jamie L. Pytko and Laura O. Reese
In this study we sought to better understand the relationship between disfluencies and perceived intelligence. It is generally accepted that disfluencies such as “um” and “uh” indicate messages to a listener. In the current study, we examined how the use of “um” and “uh” impact the perceived intelligence of a speaker. We found that intelligence was not impacted by the use of “um” and “uh.” However, we found that filler words such as “um” and “uh” do affect other aspects of speaking such as perceived preparedness, effectiveness at public speaking, and ease of understanding by a listener.

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The Influence of Gender and Parenting Style on Perceptions of Bullying and Upstanding Behavior
Allison Ardolino
This study examined the interactive effect of gender and the parenting style under which an individual was raised on recognition of acts of physical and relational bullying and perceived severity of each type of bullying. To date, there have been no studies looking for complex relationships among these key variables. Furthermore, because there has been little research to date on factors influencing upstanding behavior, the act of intervening in a situation involving bullying, this study also investigated the influence of parenting style and gender on participants’ reported likelihood of upstanding behavior. A sample of 167 (22 males, 145 females) college students rated vignettes on the presence and severity of bullying and the likelihood that they would intervene in the situation. They also completed the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ; 1991) to identify their parenting style. Females’ recognition ratings, severity ratings, and likelihood for upstanding ratings were significantly higher than the comparable ratings from males for the relational bullying vignettes. There were no significant differences on these ratings between parenting style groups and no interaction between gender and parenting style. No significant differences between gender groups, parenting style groups, and no interaction effects were found with regard to perceptions about physical bullying. The findings are discussed in light of their implications for bullying prevention and future research.

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The Impact of Sex, Gender Role Orientation, and Extroversion on Emotional and Social Intelligence
Allison Ardolino
There has been much interest in emotional and social intelligence (EQ) since the publication of the seminal work on the topic by Goleman (1998). EQ has been identified as a factor that is at least as important as the traditional intelligence quotient. This study was done to investigate the relationship of factors such as sex, the gender role orientation of androgyny, and the personality trait of extroversion with EQ. A sample of 179 (41 male, 138 female) college students completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; 1974) to measure gender role orientation, the extroversion subscale of Eysenck’s Personality Inventory (EPI; 1964), the subscales of Gardner’s measure of multiple intelligences (1983) and BarOn’s Emotional Quotient Inventory (1997). Results supported two of the study’s hypotheses in that more female participants were classified as androgynous compared with males and participants who were classified as androgynous had significantly higher emotional and social intelligence scores than those falling into the other gender role orientations. Contrary to the study’s second hypothesis, those in the high extroversion group did not have higher emotional and social intelligence scores than those in the low extroversion group. An interaction effect of sex by gender role category was found where there were larger differences in mean emotional and social intelligence scores across sex role groups for males than there were for their female counterparts.

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Editor-in-Chief:

Mary Hebert, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Psychology Program
College of Saint Elizabeth

Associate Editors:

Michelle Barrett
Assistant Professor and Program Chair for Psychology
Psychology Program
College of Saint Elizabeth

Graduate Student Editor:

Alyssa Nowicky
Graduate Program in Forensic Psychology and Counseling,
College of Saint Elizabeth