An Experimental Investigating the Effects of Leading Questions on False Memory Creation Regarding a Series of Images
Shannon Cooley
This experiment tested the effect of leading questions on the creation of false memories of images. Subjects were presented with a series of images, followed by questions containing keywords. The keywords used in the experimental group had stronger connotations than those used in the control group. It was hypothesized that the use of words with a stronger connotation would cause subjects to create more false memories of objects that were not actually in the pictures. The independent variable was the connotation of the keyword used in the question, and the dependent variable was the number of objects falsely remembered by subjects. This experiment was an independent sample design. The results of the experiment supported the research hypothesis; a t test was used showing that the results were significant at p < .05. The results show that the use of words with stronger connotations can cause people to create more false memories.

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Adolescent Suicide and Societal Pressure
Eleftheria Wolff
This five-year literature review brings to light what is known in the field of sociology about the result of societal pressures on adolescent suicide. Adolescents have very high rates of suicide; it is the third highest cause of death among this age group. Although the rate of deaths per year is high, there are over 30 times more attempted suicides by adolescents per year. This literature review will discuss demographics, the importance of mattering, and the effects of family strains, sexuality, and high school on adolescent suicide ideation. It was found that many more females attempt suicide than males, yet more males die of suicide. Atypical gender sexuality was found to lead to family conflict which led to suicide ideation, and the feeling of being needed, valued and belonging were all found to be very significant. Finally, social support, whether from family members, peers or the community, creates safety for adolescents and reduces the probability of suicide ideation.

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Cyber-bullying: The New Generation of Mean
Kelly Shiraldi
Bullying is one of the most common forms of violence in teenagers´┐Ż lives and often takes place in conjunction with internet use. Cyber-bullying increasingly allows both boys and girls to harass their peers through instant messaging, email and blogs with as much anonymity as they want. This paper represents a five-year literature review in which the social factors influencing cyber-bullying are identified, explored and analyzed. It focuses on influences on cyber-bullying, characteristics of participants (based on sex, age and socio-economic status) and consequences for victims and bullies. It is hoped that the paper will result in a better understanding of the phenomenon that will reduce both its prevalence and the harm that can befall victims.

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Painting Social Inequality: Social Class, Gender, and the Creation of Cultural Capitol in the Visual Arts
Gina Dandrow
This paper examines the relationships between the visual arts (film, painting, photography, and sculpture), social class and gender as they pertain to the attainment of cultural capital as defined by Pierre Bourdieu (1993). In a review of current sociological literature from the last five years, inequalities of access to and possession of cultural capital are noted. Since much of the research is of the Bourdieuian approach, most research analyzes the relationship between the visual arts and social class, more so than other demographic variables. Secondary to social class, gender differences are also assessed. In its conclusion, this paper argues for a thorough investigation of the relationship between the visual arts and race, claiming that many studies in this area are limited and biased.

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Patricia Heindel, Ph.D.
Professor, Psychology Dept. College of St. Elizabeth

Associate Editors:

Melanie Conti, M.A.
Psychology Department,
College of St. Elizabeth


Herman Huber, Ph.D.
Assoc. Professor and Chair,
Psychology Department
College of St. Elizabeth


Mary Chayko, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair, Sociology Department,
College of St. Elizabeth

Graduate Student Editor:

Elizabeth Cruickshank
Graduate Program in Counseling Psychology,
College of St. Elizabeth